(BadTextbooks) Slide-17 NextSlide>  AFTER you have studied THIS Slide)

Old Gas Laws did NOT Start with an "Original-Volume"(!!)TutorU's Gas Laws:

(Replace "Ideal Gas Law")
    Pressure (Y-down); Volume (X-right)
    o T=InWard=Z
    o (Inherently)PxV=T (3-DirectionGraph)==>
    FIGure-Shoe (its Sole=SolidParticles)==>

    {1} P(VT=VA+Vn)/T = nR; R = Nk.
        o Vn = Original volume of particles.
        o VT = Total|Final Volume measured.
        o VA = Active Volume (calculated).
        o n = number of moles (used)
        Ideally, you would start with a CubicCentimeter of SolidParticles....
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NIST & CRC Handbook (of Chemistry & Physics) a-r-e Fuzzy/Faulty.
They don't know what a "mole" IS!!
mole = gram/dalton
kilomole = kilogram/dalton